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of caviar or chipped beef. Which one will it 
be, Sir?” 

I grimly replied that chipped beef would 
be suitable knowing well that I would never 
see the day when the Army offered Eggs 
Benedict. It was a nice thought though. I 
often wondered how General was able to do 
his job without completely flying off file 
handle. With a couple dozen patients scream- 
ing different orders at him at the same time 
it must have been hard. But the general al- 
ways smiled and the patients always got 
what they asked for. 

Table conversation among patients was 
notoriously dull. I was able to stay out of 
it by bringing something to read. A usual 
topic of conversation was how long it takes 
for things to happen at Forest Glen. Many 
patients were awaiting medical discharges — 
a long and tedious process, 

“Hey, Mac, when you gettin’ out of this 
place?” one would ask. 

“X don’t know, when you gettin’ out?" the 
other would reply. “If something don’t 
happen pretty soon, I’m sure as hell going 
to write my Congressman.” 

“Yeah, I’ll write mine too." 

And so it went, If you don’t like some- 
thing in the Army you write your Congress- 
man and let him fight it out with some gen- 
eral who is forced to go all the way down 
the line to a sergeant to see what the whole 
thing is about. 

In Basic Training some guy wrote his 
Congressman and complained that he wasn’t 
getting enough sleep. After that, the whole 
battalion went to bed at 9 p.m. like it or not. 
The complalner became amazingly un- 

As far as I was concerned there were five 
highlights in a day at Forest Glen — three 
meals and two mail calls. Whatever I did 
with the rest of my time was optional. I 
sometimes had to travel over to the main 
hospital for an appointment, but they were 
infrequent and usually lasted no more than 
fifteen minutes. Some of the patients I knew 
like to spend the entire day at the main 
hospital for reasons which I could never 
figure out. Maybe they wanted a change of 
scenery or perhaps they thought the food 
was better over there. I really couldn't see 
any difference. 

I repeatedly found myself seeking refuge 
in the library during the mornings and 
afternoons. Quiet and fairly well stocked, it 
was a pleasant change from the constant 
bustle of the rest of the place. In the library, 
you lost all sense of time and became en- 
grossed in what you were reading. This is 
possibly because you knew there was nothing 
else to do. It was at this time that I began 
to take an interest in reading the history of 
Forest Glen. 

Forest Glen is not particularly easy to find, 
and it wasn’t meant to be. The people who 
originally built It in 1890 had in mind an 
exclusive resort for those wishing to escape 
the heat of downtown Washington during 
the summer months. 

It wasn’t that the city didn’t get hot dur- 
ing the summer, but “Ye Forest Inne.” as it 
was called in those days, failed to turn a 
profit and closed within four years. For the 
next half century, Forest Glen played host 
to young women in the form of National 
Park Seminary and later, National Park Col- 
lege. The school changed ownership several 
times and in spite of the lavish furnishings 
added to the original Forest Inn, the college 
sold out to the Army in 1942. 

This sale may have been a disturbing fact 
to alumnae of National Park College but 
patients, beginning with those returning 
from World War II, were enthusiastic. The 
Army’s Investment again proved wise during 
the Korean Conflict; and now, Vietnam vet- 
erans and others such as myself come to 
Forest Glen, taking the strain off the over- 
crowded wards of Water Reed proper. 

For all the facilities it offers, Forest Glen, 
in the opinion of many, is distinctly dis- 


pleasing to look at. It is a conglomeration 
of different types of architecture which one 
visitor recently described as “early nothing 
to late Halloween.” 

The description may not be far from 
wrong. At Forest Glen you will find a Japa- 
nese pagoda, a Spanish mission, a Swiss 
Chalet and a medieval castle with, that’s 
right, a drawbridge. It was Post Theater No. 
2 that resembled the front of an old. South - 
ern plantation, First-*run films are shown 
there five times a week for an amazingly 
meager price of admission. Thirty-five cents. 

Other oddities you will find at Forest Glen 
include bronze castings of sphinxes, lions 
and barking dogs which decorate bridges that 
span numerous gulleys. Cast iron figures at- 
tired in iron robes hold street lights. Con- 
crete statues, usually of young girls, support 
some of the porch roofs. Former sorority 
houses are now officers’ quarters. 

With no discredit to the above, the pride 
and joy of Forest Glen has to be its three- 
tiered ballrom with stained-glass windows 
and a 70-foot ceiling. Once used for the most 
formal occasions at National Park College, 
the ballroom is now the scene of “pop-corn 
parties” put on by the Red Cross. The ball- 
room, affectionately known as the patients’ 
lounge, also contains television, pool and 
ping-pong tables, and plenty of comfortable 
easy-chairs. Hie highly polished, stained 
wood floor in the center of the room has a 
sign which warns patients to “Please Keep 
Off.” c 

There are those times, however, when the 
sign is removed and the patient’s lounge 
becomes the center of festivity— as much as 
it ever will. Dances are held frequently dur- 
ing the evenings and entertainment ranges 
from a ladies’ barbershop quartet to the 
never-ending beat of a “hard rock” band. 
Since many of the patients at Forest Glen 
are amputees, sit down entertainment is 
stressed over dancing. 

The Army “blurb” about Forest Glen, put 
out in 1963, says “Forest Glen retains the 
charm of the old with the serviceability of 
the new.” Indeed, a great amount of research 
Is conducted in or around the Forest Glen 
area. The Army Bio-mechanical Research 
Laboratory, established in 1963, is the site of 
advanced study in prosthetics (artificial 
limbs) . There is also a speech and audiology 
center, a medical specialist advanced course 
a historical unit and the Military En- 
tomology Information Service. 

As the weeks went by time began to really 
drag and I began to notice more people and 
associated them with certain characteristics. 

I noticed amputees in particular. Not be- 
cause they stood out for any reason, but be- 
cause I could identify with the sense of loss 
some of them apparently ‘ had. Ninety per 
cent of the amputees at Forest Glen I 
learned, were from the Vietnam war; and 
from what I could gather, many were 
ostentatiously proud to have served there In 
spite of their present condition. 

There were little indications. The Vietnam 
veterans always wore their olive drab field 
jackets over the required blue hospital uni- 
form. The field jacket was better than the 
name tag of cloth that was sewed above the 
left pocket. A quick glance at the Jacket 
could tell you the rank of the owner, whether 
he had been to Vietnam, and what unit he 
served with. Since injured soldiers from the 
war are automatically given a promotion of 
at least one grade upon their return to the 
states, it was understandable the men would 
delight in showing off their new ranks 
It seemed evident to me that none of the 
veteran amputees that I met at Forest Glen 
felt sorry for himself to any noticeable ex- 
tent. I suppose they were out to show the 
world that they were every bit as good as 
before, and they were doing it with success. 

A couple of the men who had lost legs 
drove standard shift cars with hand con- 
trols rigged up so they could use the clutch. 
Others were satisfied to drive cars with auto- 

matic transmissions. In no way did their 
conditions prevent them from having a good 
time on off-duty hours. Some went to the 
Non-Commissioned Officers Club to drink a 
few beers during the evening while others 
went out on dates or to one of the two 
post movies Walter Reed offers. 

One sergeant however, whom I’ll call 
Dave, became unusually bitter about his 

“Say, Dave” I said once, "what do you 
plan to do with yourself when you get out 
of this place?" 

“Nothing,” he answered in a monotone. 

‘Nothing!” I exclaimed. “And Just how 
d0 5‘° u think you can get away with doing 
nothing for the rest of your life. The only 
way you can do nothing is if you live in the 
soldiers’ home or something.” 

“It’ll be easy,” Dave said. “With the dis- 
ability I’ll be getting from the Veterans’ 
Administration and the Social Security I 
can draw if I don’t work, I can make al- 
most five hundred dollars a month, tax free 
Why should I do anything when I can make 
that kind of money doing nothing?” 

“But don’t you think you’ll get tired of 
just sitting around after a while?” I asked. 

I doubt it, but if I do, I might consider 
going to work.” 

Dave s attitude was not the standard one 
at Forest Glen. Most of the men had jobs 
already lined up and waiting for them upon 
their return home. Others planned to go 
back to school and send Uncle Sam the 

During my stay at Forest Glen I only 
knew of one other amputee besides myself 
who was not Injured in Vietnam. I think 
most of the people I met naturally assumed 
I was from Vietnam and I became quite 
tired of telling them that I was a veteran of 
the nation’s highways, and not Vietnam. 
Also, they didn’t seem impressed when I 
quoted statistics which revealed more 
people by far are killed on the highways 
than in the war. Each man from Vietnam 
seemed to enjoy telling about the particular 
Incident in which he was injured, and none 
was resentful if asked to explain how he 
was injured. It was an underlying sense of 
pride — almost as if the men were begging 
to be asked about their combat experiences. 

Sometimes it was a little overdone. On 
Tuesday nights, every television in the place 
without exception was tuned into “Com- 
bat." The show was watched with reverence. 

I couldn’t blame them for watching it, but 
everybody knew who was going to win 
every week, and after a while it became a 

bore. . 


(Mr. VIGORITO (at the request of 
Mr. Albert) was granted permission to 
extend his remarks at this point in the 
Record and to include extraneous 

Mr. VIGORITO. Mr. Speaker, in the 
past several weeks many people have 
said many things about the recent con- 
flict in the Middle East. I would like to 
enter into the Record my brief feelings 
on the entire development. 

It is clear that the blockade of the 
Gulf of Aqaba by President Nasser and 
the stationing of Arab troops along its 
border forced Israel to take the action it 
did in self-defense of its frontiers. It is 
also obvious that the Israel Army and 
Air Force richly deserve the impressive 
victory they have won. 

What is less clear is the future action 
which must be taken to bring the Middle 
East to peaceful existence once and for 
all. Now that the conflict is over, the 
Arab nations must recognize that Israel, 

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like any other nation, has its right to ex- 
ist and the right to demand guarantees 
of territorial integrity. Israel is an inde- 
pendent state and should be able to en- 
joy the recognition due such a state. For 
this reason, its borders should be secured 
so that never again will it have to mass 

troops to defend its frontiers. 

Freedom of passage in the Suez Canal 
and the Gulf of Aqaba should be guaran- 
anteed not only to Israel but to all na- 
tions of the world, and the final settle- 
ment of its boundaries should include 
the recognition by the Arab countries of 
these borders. 

Finally, Israel has undergone, despite 
its military victory, a serious economic 
dislocation. I hope it will be the policy of 
this Government to extend to the coun- 
try all possible economic assistance. 


fMr THOMPSON of New Jersey (at 
the request of Mr. Albert) was granted 
permission to extend his remarks at this 
point in the Record and to include ex- 
traneous matter.) 

Mr THOMPSON of New Jersey. Mr. 
Speaker, in a recent ceremony in Phila- 
delphia, President Johnson signed into 
law a bill that extended the life of the 
Teachers Corps. He declared: 

This idea was so sound that it witnstooa 
the fiercest buffeting and the strongest 

He is right. The idea of the Teachers 
Corps is based on a notion as old as 
American itself; namely, that knowledge 
is the key to progress ahd greater hu- 
man understanding. And the Teachers 
Corps is a new and exciting program that 
will help to improve the standards of 
classroom learning in hundreds of 
American communities. 

The teacher has always been the in- 
dispensable link in the chain of acquir- 
ing a good education. This link is being 
strengthened by the 1,200 Teachers 
Corps members — and hundreds of oth- 
Grs who will toe enrolling in the program 
in the years ahead — wlio are providing, 
in the President’s words, “a basic build- 
ing block for our schools and for our 

Nation.” , . 

President Johnson should be deserved- 
ly proud of the Teachers Corps and its 
accomplishments. • 

As one who has supported this pro- 
gram from its inception, I share the 
pride of the President and my fellow citi- 
zens in a program that is helping to light 
the lamp knowledge for thousands of 

measare introduced in the other body 

by Senator Edmund S. Muskie. 

Ths problem of solid wastes — those 
items- which have lost their usefulness or 
appeal but not their physical bulk— is 
assuming enormous dimensions m this 
country. We are generating about 400,00J) 
tons of trash a day, or roughly 4 Pounds 
for every man, woman, and cnila in tne 

Nl Uidess we find some practical means of 
disposing of this refuse, our urban areas 
could turn into massive junk yards, 
choked with unwanted consumer goods, 
industrial wastes, and womout buildings. 

Mf bill would authorize a Federal ex- 
penditure of $810.8 million over the next 
5 years for the planning and construc- 
tion of large scale disposal projects. This 
largj sum should be measured against 
the $2.5 billion we would otherwise have 
to spend during the next decade just for 
the iisposal facilities needed to keep pace 
with the expected annual increase in the 
sheer volume of our trash. 

Tie U.S. aid would be offered only for 
projects which met the highest standards 
of engineering, health protection, and 
pollution control. 

Throwing away the 800 million pounds 
of solid wastes that Americans generate 
each day without polluting the air, the 
water, and the land on which our health 
anc lives depend is an extremely complex 
challenge, one for which we still do not 
ha\e all the answers, Our legislation 
should help provide at least some of tne 

I might add that this bill has been en- 
doised by the city of San Diego, which 
I have the honor to represent. The San 
Diigo Utilities Department, recognizing 
th6 urgency of the problem, is already 
engaged in research to determine wheth- 
er useful byproducts can be created 
frem the controlled burning of municipal 

by 20 years within the last 60 years. Today it 
is making an unprecedented assault on health 
problems — vaccines, antibiotics, modern 
drugs, life saving devices like plastic heart 
valves prolong life and prevent its erosion 
Not all of my remarks on health carejsystem 
today will he complimentary. But whatever 
X say 7 is said In the full recognition that this 
system at its best Is the finest in the world, 
and that you who participate in it have an 
impressive record to stand on. 


All of us would agree, X think, that our 
health care system shows disturbing signs 
of stress and strain. , 

So long as the United States stands 10th .in 
preventing infant deaths, 1.4th in deaths 
tom diabetes, 13th in deaths from J} ear * 
disease, 5th. in overall deaths, and 8th in. 
prolonging life. 

So long as chronic disease is a way of 
life for millions and whole segments 1 of ' the 
population do not receive medical attention 
with any degree of thoroughness. 

So long as 100,000 people die of uremic 
rpoisoning, partially because treatment is 
too expensive, _ 

So long as 50% of all children under 15 

have not visited a dentist, 

So long as measles kill 500 children each 
year and cervical cancer kills 8,000 women, 
your work and mine is undone. 

1. Costs 



(Mr. VAN DEERLIN (at the request of 
Mr. Albert) was granted permission to 
extend his remarks at this point in the 
Record and to include extraneous 

Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Mr. Speaker, I am 
today introducing legislation to substan- 
tially expand the Federal program for 
assisting cities and States in the disposal 
of solid wastes. My bill is modeled on a 

, Mr . HAMILTON (at the request of Mr. 
Albert) was granted permission to ex- 
tend his remarks at this point in the 
Record and to include extraneous mat- 
te* * ) 

Mr. HAMILTON. Mr. Speaker, recent- 
ly I addressed a conference of Indiana 
hospital trustees and administrators 
sponsored by the Indiana Hospital Asso- 

Ci This group has provided many excel- 
led examples for the rest of the Nation 
tl rough many and varied efforts to im- 
prove the quality, efficiency and economy 
oi medical care in Indiana. 

The national need for these improve- 
ments was the topic of my remarks to 
tlds group. I include these remarks in 
full in the Record: 

y/e are concerned today with the progress 
o:' a health care system in America which is 
gargantuan, complicated and expensive. 

At its best this system is spectacular 

At its best it can apply the research that 
produced the Salk and Sabine vaccines to 
e. iminate the terror of polio. 

At its bei t it can mobilize to cope with dls- 
a iters like your almost miraculous achieve- 
ments during the night of the coliseum ex- 

P This health care system has prolonged life 

The expense of health care represents a 
very grave stress In the system. . 

The study by Dorothy Rice for the Depart- 
ment of njalth, Education and Welfare en- 
titled “Estimating The Cost of Illness, cal 
culated that health care and the lack of it, 
cost the nation $93 1 /a billion in 1963. 

This includes $34.3 billion for the direct 
costs of the system (hospitals, physicians, 
drugs and. insurance) and $59.2 billion in 
such Indirect costs as the loss of productivity 
during illness and the premature deaths 
We could reasonably expect this estimate 

to he substantially higher now. 

Last year Titles 18 and 19 began eliminat- 
ing the economic barriers to help care for 
two very large groups of the P°P" lat ^ 
the elderly and the poor. This adds to the 
costs of onr health care system too. 

I know you are very much aware that the 
daily charges in hospitals rose 16y 2 % last 
year on a national average. This was the 
single most Inflationary component of the 
consumer price index. Physicians fees rose 
again on the national average, 7.8%. This 
was the greatest annual increase since 1927. 

In 1950 the average cost per day m tne 
hospital was $14.40. In 1965 it had tripled, 
more than $46. 

These statistics clo not measure a.i the 
costs of the system. Pew families in the great 
American middle class have any effective de- 
fense for the costs of a major illness. These 
families cannot meet the economic demands 
of a child of lukemia, a father with a dis- 
abling heart disease, a mother whose life 
depends on the availability of an artificial 

The costs of the system often forces these 
families to dispose of their assets, to liq- 
uidate their Insurance and retirement pro- 
grams and even to take their children out of 

2. Resources 

Another source of great stress and strain 
in the health care system is the shortage of 
resources. This is a very frustrating problem. 
We have found it is really much easier to find 
the money for new hospitals than it is to find 
the people from janitors to administrators to 

staff them. 

Many of you are aware of that from your 
personal experience. 

In Washington we are told in hard statis- 
tics that within the next decade, the nation 
will need a million new health workers. To 
meet the requirements for new doctors, we 

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House of Representatives 

The House met at 12 o’clock noon. 

The Chaplain, Rev. Edward G. Latch, 
D.D., offered the following prayer: 

Behold, the Lord our God has shown 
us His glory and His greatness, and we 
have heard His voice out of the midst 
of the fire; we have seen this day that 
God does talk with man and that He 
lives. — Deuteronomy 5: 24. 

O God, our Father, we thank Thee 
for the gift of a new day fresh from Thy 
hand. Help us to use these hours to live 
cleanly, to labor industriously, to love 
wisely, and to keep our spirits elevated to 
high levels of thought. May we have the 
strength to overcome our difficulties and 
the courage to carry our responsibilities 
with honor and with uplifted hearts. 

Sustain us in every effort to make a 
better world and to bring good will to 
all the children of men. In the midst of 
this day’s work assure us of Thy pres- 
ence and let the light of Thy wisdom 
fall upon our pathway. In Jesus’ name 
we pray. Amen. 


The Journal of the proceedings of yes' 
terday was read and approved. 


A message from the Senate by Mr. 
Arrington, one of its clerks, announced 
that the Senate had passed a bill of the 
following title, in which the concur- 
rence of the House is requested: 

S. 5. An act to assist in the promotion of 
economic stabilization by requiring the dis- 
closure of finance charges in connection with 
extension of credit. 


(Mr. RESNICK asked and was given 
permission to address the House for 1 
minute and to revise and extend his 
rsmarks ) 

Mr. RESNICK. Mr. Speaker, today, 
July 12, is going to go down in the annals 
of congressional history, for today for 
the first time the House Committee on 
Agriculture passed a resolution disas- 
sociating itself from my remarks about 
the American Farm Bureau Federation. 

Mr. Speaker, you have been here many 
years, and you know what an unprece- 
dented action this is. Now, my charges 
that I have made will be fully aired. 
I do not want to take the time now to 
discuss them, but I will in a special order 
when this session is over. I would point 
out at this time that this resolution was 
passed, and the majority of the members 
of that committee are members of the 
American Farm Bureau Federation, so 
the question which must be raised is: 
Is this a committee of the House, or is 

Wednesday, July 12, 1967 

this a committee of the American Farm 
Bureau Federation? 

Mr. Speaker, I will continue to speak 
on this. 


(Mr. O’HARA of Michigan asked and 
was given permission to address the 
House for 1 minute and to revise and ex- 
tend his remarks.) 

Mr. O’HARA of Michigan. Mr. Speak- 
er, the action taken by the Committee on 
Agriculture is without any precedent 
during the time I have served in the 
House. I think, indeed, that it is a dan- 
gerous precedent when a Member of the 
House of Representatives cannot ques- 
tion the activities or the standing of a 
powerful Washington lobby without 
running the risk of having the commit- 
tee on which he serves adopt a resolu- 
tion disassociating themselves from his 
statements and characterizing what he 
said as a “personal attack.” This con- 
stitutes an inhibition upon the right of 
free inquiry by Members of the Congress 
about which we should all be concerned. 

For this reason, Mr. Speaker, I want to 
express my surprise that the Committee 
on Agriculture should feel called upon to 
take such action. If any Member dis- 
agrees with the remarks of the gentle- 
man from New York, regarding the Farm 
Bureau, he has this forum in which to 
state his disagreement. But the adop- 
tion of a resolution by the Committee on 
Agriculture, it seems to me, is a very 
poor precedent. 

TION BILL, 1968 

Mr. KIRWAN. Mr. Speaker, I ask 
unanimous consent that the Committee 
on Appropriations may have until mid- 
night Thursday, July 13, to file a report 
on the Department of Transportation 
appropriation bill for the fiscal year 

Mr. MINSHALL reserved all points of 
order on the bill. 

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to 
the request of the gentleman from Ohio 
[Mr. Kirwan] ? 

There was no objection. 


(Mr. MULTER asked and was given 
permission to address the House for 1 
minute and to revise and extend his re- 

Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, President 
Johnson has named an outstanding 

young Negro American to be Chairman of 
the Equal Employment Opportunity 
Commission — Clifford Alexander, Jr. 

Those of us who have observed Mr. 
Alexander’s performance as a White 
House aide during the past 4 years, know 
him to be a capable, dedicated and effec- 
tive public servant — wise beyond his 

I first met him in Brooklyn some years 
ago. I quickly learned to respect his 
ability and wide knowledge. He has a 
natural knack of genuine cooperation 
with his fellow man. 

Mr. Alexander has served with great 
distinction as Deputy Special Council to 
the President. There is every reason to 
believe that he will be equally as effec- 
tive as head of the Equal Employment 
Opportunity Commission. 

Mr. Alexander knows well that equal 
employment opportunity is a key factor 
in the Negro’s quest for true equal rights 
in the Ignited States. His dedication to 
this cause is beyond question. His tact, 
good sense, and experience will help him 
to fulfill the objective of this vital Com- 

I wish Mr. Alexander well. He is as- 
suming a difficult post, one that will de- 
mand the best of his talents and abilities. 
He will be in the vortex of the struggle 
for civil rights — and will be expected to 
act firmly, but fairly, to all concerned. 

I commend President Johnson for the 
wisdom of this appointment. Mr. Alex- 
ander has well earned the President’s 
confidence and respect. His appointment 
is a hopeful sign that the Equal Employ- 
ment Opportunity Commission will have 
a key role to play in the progress we seek 
for all Americans. 

Mr. MURPHY of New York. Mr. 
Speaker, President Johnson has once 
again shown his deep interest in equal 
rights for all Americans by nominating 
as the new Chairman of the Equal Em- 
ployment Opportunity Commission, his 
own Deputy Special Counsel, Clifford L. 
Alexander, Jr., of New York. 

Those who know Mr. Alexander per- 
sonally, recognize that he is not only a 
. highly able qualified young man who 
has already served his country in a num- 
ber of distinguished positions, but that 
he is also a warm and considerate hu- 
man being. 

Cliff Alexander is one of those new 
breed of young men who entered public 
service with a selfless devotion to im- 
prove the quality of our national life and 
strengthen the institutions of democratic 

The President made a fine choice when 
he brought Mr. Alexander to the White 
House staff some 3 or more years ago. 

He has now made another excellent 
choice in naming him as the new Chair- 
man of the Equal Employment Oppor- 
tunity Commission. 

H 8531 

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This nomination is not only a gain for 
equal opportunity and civil rights. It is 
a gain for government as a whole. 

We welcome Clifford Alexander to his 
new responsibilities, and we wish him 
well in the future. 

And we compliment the President on 
the quality of his appointments. 


Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, I ask 
unanimous consent that all Members de- 
siring to do so may extend their remarks 
on the subject matter of the appointment 
of Mr. Alexander as Chairman of the 
Equal Employment Opportunity Com- 

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to 
the request of the gentleman from New 

There was no objection. 


(Mr. FARBSTEEN asked and was 
given permission to address the House 
for 1 minute and to revise and extend his 
remarks and include extraneous matter.) 

Mr. FARBSTEIN. Mr. Speaker, the 
relentless efforts of the Soviet Union to 
rebuild the bellicose spirit and warmak- 
ing potential of the Arab States testifies 
to the Kremlin’s unabated determination 
to become the dominant power in the 
Middle East. 

At this very minute, Arab leaders, act- 
ing under Soviet advice, may be conspir- 
ing in Cairo to resume the war in the 
Middle East, while Soviet; warships lie at 
anchor in Arab ports ap testimony to 
Russian-Arab solidarity. Meanwhile, 
throughout the Arab world new armies 
and new air forces are being trained w’ith 
modern Soviet equipment 
Mr. Speaker, I fear that our Govern- 
ment has not made its own policies in 
the Middle East as clear as they might 
be. I am apprehensive that an Arab mis- 
calculation might once again bring 
tragedy down on their heads, but with 
much more grievous consequences for the 
entire world. If such a tragedy ensues 
from the current Russian-Arab machina- 
tions, it will be the Soviet government 
that is to blame. 

I believe, Mr. Speaker, that our Presi- 
dent must speak out publicly in unmis- 
takable terms, even though he may have 
done so privately, that this country will 
not tolerate a resumption of Arab ag- 
gression in the Middle East. I believe that 
our Government must warn the Soviet 
Union in the most solemn fashion that 
it will hold the Russian policy respon- 
sible if there is a renewal of hostilities. 

I believe that President Jphnson should 
convey to Premier Kosygin his intention 
to thwart any effort by the Soviet Union 
to take over the Middle East, either di- 
rectly or through Arab puppets. 

The Kremlin is mortgaging Arab lives 
and- fortunes to its own nefarious policy 
designs. We must make it , clear that we 
will not consent to Israel’s defeat to sat- 
isfy Russian ambitions. The situation 
is now growing as dangerous as it was 
last May. Before it is too late, the Presi- 

dent must caution the Russians not to 
lose their heads. The Soviets are playing 
a most dangerous game and the Presi- 
dent must inform them that they 

Extension of the u.s. civil 


Mr. GUIDE asked and was given per- 
mission to address the House for 1 min- 
ute and to revise and extend his 

Mr. GUDE. Mr. Speaker, yesterday, I 
was unavoidably detained in my office 
wi'h constituents during the vote on 
H.R. 10805, the bill to extend the life of 
the U.S. Civil Rights Commission until 
19”3. This independent, bipartisan Com- 
mission hasi made many, very valuable 
contributions to furthering the cause of 
radal understanding and, therefore, I 
am strongly in favor of its continuation. 


(Mr. GROSS asked and was given per- 
mission to address the House for 1 min- 
ute and to revise and extend Ms 

Mr, GROSS. Mr. Speaker, I was aston- 
ishcd to see in the July 4 issue of theJSan 
Diego Union of San Diego, Calif., a pic- 
ture of six 'CJ.S. aircraft carriers in the 
harbor and sMpyards at Long Beach. 
One nuclear- weapon or device of even 
small dimensions, delivered by air or 
submarine 1» tMs one harbor, would 
break the back of the carrier force of the 
U.S. Navy. 

There were six carriers in the same 
harjor early in 1956. At that time I spoke 
in opposition to the concentration of 
carriers in this fasMon. The then chair- 
man of the House Armed Services Com- 
mittee, Mr. Vinson, also spoke in oppo- 
sition to this kind of concentration of 
our naval strength. Although the Navy 
never would admit it was wrong in con- 
cern rating these fighting ships in one 
place, I thought we had some private 
asst ranee that this would not occur 

Mr. Speaker, I hope that the Navy 
will disperse these carriers immediately 
and that such a concentration will never 
again be permitted for this is an open 
invi ration to another Pearl Harbor. 

JU> f te — — — 


(Mr. DICKINSON asked and w r as given 
permission to address the House for 1 
minute and to revise and extend his re- 
marts and include extraneous matter.) 

Mr. DICKINSON. Mr. Speaker, re- 
cently, I had the pleasure of having Mrs. 
Sidney C. Shinbaum, president, Council 
of Jewish Women of Montgomery, Ala., 
and vice president. National Women’s 
League of America, call on me to express 
her concern oyer the Arab-Israel situa- 
tion in the Middle East._ Accompanying 
her were Mrs. Sol Hertzog, regional pres- 
ident; of Hadassah and Mrs. Abe Walter, 
past regional president of Hadassah, both 
of Memphis, Tenn. 

In our discussion, I asked Mrs. Shin- 
baum what site wanted me, as a Member 
of Congress, to do since Congress itself 

would have little, if anything, to do with 
the terms of any armistice or treaty be- 
tween Israel and the Arab nations, nor 
would Congress have much, if anything, 
to do with the United Nations role in 
premises, and based on prior experiences, 
it is not likely that the State Depart- 
ment will consult with the Congress as 
to the role the United States should play 
in bringing about a permanent solution 
to the problems confronting Israel, 
Egypt, and the other Arab States. 

I was given a list of five points that 
Mrs. Shinbaum feels should be the basis 
of any truce or permanent armistice. 
These five points are: 

First. The recognition by the Arab na- 
tions, once and for all time, of the exist- 
ence of the State of Israel and its right 
to be a free and sovereign nation. 

Second. The recognition by all parties 
that the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf 
of Aqaba constitute an international 

Third. That the Suez Canal be open to 
Israel vessels. 

Fourth. That the Arab nations accord 
to American Jewish business firms and 
Americans of Jewish descent the same 
rights and privileges accorded to other 

Fifth. That Israel and her warring 
neighbors settle the details of peace in 
face-to-face confrontation. 

I agree that these points are sensible 
and sound and should certainly be the 
basis of any settlement. To this I think 
it should be added that the entire city of 
Jerusalem be treated sis a single unit 
with ready access by all people at all 
times and that it should never again be 
divided by any boundaries, real or imagi- 
nary. I, for one, feel that the actions 
Israel took were justified and necessary 
for its preservation, As a matter of fact, 
if it had been left up to some of our 
fuzzy thinkers hi the State Department 
and the United Nations, Israel would 
have continued talking until N&sser and 
the other Arab nations were in a posi- 
tion to strike the final blow which might 
have led to Nasser’s promised annihila- 
tion of Israel as a people and a state. 

The courageous people of Israel should 
know and, indeed, all people should know, 
that neither the State Department nor 
the United Nations reflects the unan- 
imous opinions of the non-Jewish 
people — either within or outside of 


(Mr. FRASER asked and was given 
permission to address the House for 1 
minute and to revise and extend his re- 

Mr. FRASER. Mr. Speaker, I strongly 
support the action of President John- 
son in sending the three cargo trans- 
port airplanes to the Congo. 

What apparently happened in the 
Congo was that white mercenary mem- 
bers of the Congolese Army mutinied, re- 
sulting in racial tensions which threat- 
ened not only to jeopardize the security 
and safety of the people in the Congo 
but also threatened to exacerbate race 
relations in that part of Africa. 

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not engage In biological and chemical war- 
fare against himsell and his environment. 
Health and well-being — and those of future 
generations — are at stake. 

“Health experts have repeatedly pointed 
out that grave, delayed physical manifesta- 
tions can result from repeated exposure to 
concentrations of environmental pollutants 
so small that they do not make one 111 
enough to send him to the doctor. Environ- 
mental pollutants can have cumulative ef- 
fects, especially because they accumulate In 
certain tissues and organs. These effects can 
take delayed forms such as cancers, emphy- 
sema, and reduced life span, and they can 
even extend to following generations.” 

The problem of graphically perceiving 
these kinds of violence is importantly one 
of dealing with a mass phenomenon: that 
is, our ability to adjust psychologically to 
a deteriorating environment while physio- 
logically we cannot. For example, our cities 
are smothered with polluted air and we ad- 
just but our lungs do not. The forces that 
stand in the way of restoring the quality of 
our environment have led us to trade ' at 
best an Immediate benefit for a deferred 
tort. If for no other reason than an aesthetic 
one, we should have rejected this ugliness 
around us. When a people can be deprive^ 
of such fundamental aesthetic gratifications, 
they have been deprived of a most hjfeic 
sensitivity with which they are endowed. 

How can sensitivity be recovered/ en- 
dowed with normative strength and knowl- 
edgeable content? Answering this question 
is obviously a large order, but I sho ild like 
to make a few suggestions and ther follow 
with some specifics. 

First, it is important to realize tl Lat the 
exponential growth of technology in the 
postwar period has contributed something 
qualitatively new. There has emerged a 
growing capability to program technological 
innovation given an adequate provisioii of 
men, resources, and organization. Technical 
solutions can be developed as a fairly prljr 
dlctable result of conscious policymakings, 
“Inventing the technological future” is no 
longer a utopian or fictional phrase. 

Second, by far the most unyielding obsta- 
cles to a safer environment are the old 
greeds and frailties in modern garb. The 
struggle to defend, maintain and amplify 
economic power and bureaucratic position 
goes on, as it has throughout history, and 
nourishes the truncated vision and institu- 
tional stasis that are our collective bane. 
Sometimes, as in the case of the safety of 
cars, drugs, meat, the role of particular cor- 
porations looms largest. Othertimes, there 
is a convergence of callousness, as in the 
tragic case of mining companies. Govern- 
ment agencies and industry-indentured un- 
ions who permitted unknowing miners to be 
exposed to deadly radon gas and the fate of 
premature death by cancer. 

Third, a key procedural Improvement 
would be a shift in the burden of proof of 
safety levels from the users and consumers 
of a product and process to the manufac- 
turers and distributors of them. The outcry 
of industry and Hill and Knowlton to the 
contrary, this country is in its infancy as 
far as rigorous pre-marketing safety testing 
of products and processes and full disclo- 
sure of relevant information are concerned. 
The corporate system of pratial and partisan 
control of information crucial to evaluation 
of products and risk identification cannot 
be reconciled with democratic control of 
matters that touch us all. 

The recent General Electric color televi- 
sion case is illustrative of the deficiencies in 
business and government that prevent 
prompt foreseeing and forestalling of haz- 
ards. On May 18, 1967, General Electric re- 
leased an ambiguous and misleading state- 
ment that some 90,000 color TV sets pro- 
duced between June 1986 and February 1967 
"may emit soft X-radiation in excess of de- 
sirable levels". The company announced a 

program to modify these sets which were al- 
ready in their purchasers’ homes. On the 
same day, the national center for radiologi- 
cal health of the Department of Health, Edu- 
cation and Welfare, issued a statement which 
could be dubbed as an adjunct P.R. assur- 
ance for G.E. The “no need to worry” tone 
of the G.E. statement was recounted along 
with the declaration that studies made by 
the NCRH of several television sets (but not. 
as it turned out, G.E.’s offending ones) dur- 
ing the past six months did not give rise to 
concern. NCRH’s director, James G. Terrill, 
Jr., concluded the statement by saying that 
he had no evidence to suggest what any t g]*-- 

■ wiSwers 

ss. Un- 
egan to 
:hat the 
7 inches 
dth the 
by the 
ion and 

uicmuiauuum lu me center’s 
regional representatives to advise any wor- 
ried inquirers to turn off their set and not 
use it until it is checked and modified. Thi3 
advise was not contained in the press re- 
lease to the public on May 18, or in any other 
subsequent statement by the center. 

NCRH’s first specific knowledge of the G.E. 
problem was said to be on April 10, indi- 
cating that the center was in no rush to pro- 
tect the exposed people. In fact, it did not 
even inform the upper echelons of its own 
department. General Electric, on the other 
hand, discovered the excessive radiation leak- 
age last fall. (Sources in the television com- 
ponents industry were aghast that such a 
defect could pass quality control from the 
outset.) The company did not want to make 
public its tragic failing until its hand was 
forced months later by the reluctant center. 
Sunder decisive prodding by several New York 
Stete agencies and finally the New York 
Tim^s. It turned out that 164,208 sets were 
produsM with this excess X-radiation leak- 
age. WHHe G.E. was pondering Its corporate 
image month after month, adults, children 
and Infants fwhose parents often put them 
near the TV seKno they can watch both) 
were absorbing thfetg deadly emissions and 
many of them still until a G.E. repair- 
man comes to fix them7\The defective tele- 
vision sets, incidentally, am d received the 
stamp of approval from the underwriters 
laboratory. And the electronicSodustries as- 
sociation had up to May contHvpally ridi- 
culed any suggestion that television sets 
may have an excessive radiation problem. 
The entire episode, and its con ti mi it\g ex- 
istence, does little to inspire confidence in 
one of the largest corporations in the world 
or in a government organization called Die 
national center for radiological health. \ 
A far more widespread radiation hazard\ 
from diagnostic and therapeutic radiation is 
most persuasive to the point that the ab- 
sence of public safeguards in the midst of 
alarming knowledge is endemic and not 

The following facts are drawn from studies 
by Dr. Karl Morgan, Director of Health 
Physics at the Oak Ridge National 

Medical exposure accounts for about 90% 
of all exposure of the U.S. population from 
man made sources of ionizing radiation. 

The average dose to the gonads in the 
U.S. today from medical radiation is as much 
as 100 times the average dose from radio/' 
active fallout. / 

Diagnostic radiation (medical and dental 
X-rays) doses in the U,S. are mupkfnigher 
than those obtaining in other,rrtodern, in- 
dustrialized societies. The .average dose in 
the U.S. is 10 times highefthan that of the 

United Kingdom, 4 times than that of Japan, 
and 16 times higher than that of Norway. 

There were about 140 million diagnostic 
X-rays performed in 1984. Dr. Morgan com- 
ments that “no matter how great the medical 
benefits derived from X rays, this is no justi- 
fication of the fact that because of the use 
of poor techniques with obsolete and im- 
properly operated equipment, many X ray 
exposures are ten or more times that needed 
for the best diagnostic results.” He adds that 
not only could there be better X ray infor- 
mation with one tenth the dosage, but also 
such, improvement could "prevent hundreds 
"and perhaps tSfrusands of children being 
born each year with, mental and physical 
handicaps of varying Negrees, the vast ma- 
jority of which go undetected.” 

Deficient X-ray machines and poorly 
trained operators are so prevalent through- 
out the states that a serious federal appraisal 
of the adequacy of state regulation is in 

New York City probably has the most ac- 
tive inspection program in the country. In 
1961, over 3,600 X ray units in New York 
City were inspected and 92% were found 
defective. Many states either have no in- 
spection or inspect machines infrequently. 
In 1965, the states reported that of a total 
number of 113,806 medioal X ray units In use, 
only 26,174 were inspected. Nearly half of 
these were found defective and corrections 
were reported in only 7,713. California has 
not even finished its first round of inspec- 
tions yet. Connecticut has only two inspec- 
tors for the entire state, one more than 
Indiana has for its people. The value of this 
inspection is lessened by the low standards 
of machine performance established and the 
obsolescence of machines. Shortages of com- 
petent personnel, can be gauged by the fact 
that in 1965 there were only 143 full time 
men working in X ray survey and control 
programs in the entire nation. 

Situations are reported which sound 
bizarre but are actually not that uncommon. 
Professor Hanson Blatz, director of the New 
York City Office of Radiation Control cites 
X ray machines with inadequate lead shield- 
ing spraying dally doses on unknowing work- 
ers in other rooms of the building. Patients 
sitting in dental chairs are known to be ex- 
posed to radiation from eyeball to abdomen. 

Operators of X ray machines are poorly 
trained in the majority of cases. Unfortu- 
nately, this lack of training includes mem- 
bers of the dental and medical professions. 
Most physicians receive very little training in 
radiology in medical school. At Yale Medical 
School, an institution with above average 
standards, students take one short course in 
radiology which deals solely with the read- 
ing of X rays. The students themselves admit 
that they feel Inadequately prepared to deal 
with problems of radiation safety. With the 
recent exceptions of New York and Puerto 
Rico, no State requires the licensing of X 
ray machine operators pursuant to a pro- 
ficiency examination. 

Dr. Granville Larimore of the New York 

! state Department of Health described the 
ation in his State: "We knew that a 
e number of these other people taking 
ays were not really X ray technicians, 
y were nurses, secretaries, receptionists, 
[leal assistants, and others working in the 
es of private physicians. . . . For the 
t part their ’training’ was limited to a 
hours of instruction by a representative 
the equipment manufacturers.” "Un- 
led operators", says Larimore, “often can 
>se the gonads of patients to as much as 
to 200 times the amount of radiation 
.m^essary from a purely medical point of 

Numerous authorities in radiation control 
agree that current levels of diagnostic and 
therapeutic radiation could be drastically re- 
duced by newer equipment, simple retro- 
fitting of older equipment, and competent 
operators, without impairing the medical and 

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dental professions’ exercise of judgment. 
More readable X rays could be obtained with 
far lower radiation doses. Against the back- 
ground of radiation studies, efforts to reduce 
doses are urgent, the more that is known 
about radiation impact 'on humans, the 
greater is the intolerance ‘of any acceptable 
level of exposure. Any radiation exposure 
may cause some damage to the human body, 
either somatic or genetic. Exposure must be 
kept as low as possible. 

What is being done about this situation 
at the Federal level? Why has the Federal 
Radiation Council remained aloof from the 
greatest emitting source of man made radia- 
tion in this country? What is the U.S. Pub- 
lic Health Service doing? What is the, func- 
tion of the quasi-official National Council on 
Radiation Protection and Ajleasurement? Why 
have the American Medical Association, the 
American Dental Association, the American 
Hospital Association, and; the professional 
radiological organizations displayed so little 
concern with this problem? Why have the 
manufacturers of X ray equipment not been 
more aggressive advocates for selling safety? 
Just what are the inhibitions afflicting all 
these groups? 

The most effective way to publicly air these 
questions and inform the; public about the 
hazards in a sober manner is the congres- 
sional hearing. Fortunately, the years of 
waiting are at an end. 'there is a strong 
likelihood that both the House and Senate 
will open hearings on the subject shortly. 
Senator E. L. Bartlett (D. ; Alaska) has just 
called for hearings on a radiation safety bill 
which he and several other Senators have in- 
troduced. There will thqjuijual confrontation 
between the establishment and its challeng- 
ers, the usual agony in getting information 
the public has a right to have, and the 
struggle of professions arid groups to save 
face, and to remain free of any public re- 
straints. The economic pressures and the 
State vs. Federal tensions; will surface. Out 
of it all, hopefully, will come a resolution of 
conflicts and a strong iFederal radiation 
safety policy. But the law, once passed, tends 
toward atrophy or contamination in its ad- 
ministration and enforcement under the con- 
stant hammering of special interests and 
their Washington law firms. So initial efforts 
must have follow-through, and for that to 
prevail, some portion of the citizenry must 
find continuing commitment. 


Mr. HANSEN. Mr. President, in view 
of recent statements made during hear- 
ings by the House Subcommittee on Rural 
Development, on the floor of the House of 
Representatives and in Subsequent news 
stories, I wish to speak in defense of the 
goals and activities of tljie Farm Bureau. 

Having operated a cattle ranch in 
Wyoming most of my life, I am reason- 
ably familiar with some of the problems 
and needs of agricultural people and the 
role the Farm Bureau has played in 
working to solve these problems and ful- 
fill these needs. 

As a Farm Bureau member, I have had 
occasion to observe at: first hand the 
unique policymaking process through 
which the organization’s members define 
their problems and collectively outline 
courses of action to solve them. 

Certainly no one but the farmer or 
rancher himself is more acutely aware of 
the need for a better standard of rural 
living. It was a desire ^0 improve their 
economic status which prompted Farm 
Bureau members across the Nation to 
promote the establishment of their own 

insurance companies — companies which 
thjy would own and control, and which 
would fill an obvious need for adequate 
insurance coverage for the least cost. I 
see nothing wrong with this. The com- 
panies were founded and have operated 
openly and lawfully, and they contribute 
millions of dollars annually to the tax 
st) nctures of various counties, States, and 
the Nation. 

As a rancher in Wyoming, later as 
Governor of that State, and now as a 
Senator, I have worked with many Farm 
Bureau members to help improve the 
general condition of the agricultural in- 
dr stry so that it might best contribute its 
ri{ fitful share to the overall welfare of 
the Nation. 

[ have not agreed with every position 
tacen by Farm Bureau members, just as I 
do not always agree with decisions made 
by the majority of the Members of this 
body; but cm the whole, I have found the 
policies and activities of Farm Bureau to 
re Sect reason, honesty, and integrity. 

Certainly the very fact that Farm Bu- 
reau membership increases each year is a 
means by which to gage whether or not 
the activities of the leadership represent 
the thinking of the majority of mem- 
bers — for membership is entirely a volun- 
ta y matter, and those disagreeing with 
the actions or philosophy of the organiza- 
tic n are absolutely free not to join, or to 
withdraw their support. 

In short, Mr. President, I feel that any- 
one who is familiar with the many ac- 
tivities and fine accomplishments of this 
group could not help but admire the 
manner in which it works to better the 
lot of the farmer and rancher and society 
as a whole. 

Farm Bureau policy is built from the 
ground up. It does not filter from the top 
down. It begins at the local community 
level and is developed by examination, 
di scussion, and debate at the district, 
State, and eventually the National level. 

Farm Bureau has nothing to fear from 
ary investigation that is concerned with 
fa :ts and truth. 

md truth 


Mr. GORE. Mr. President, whoever 
tries to understand the Palestinian refu- 
ge; problem reaches for the true nature 
of tragedy. For 20 years a just resolution 
of this problem has defied the best efforts 
of the United Nations as well as the in- 
di'ddual efforts of many nations, includ- 
ing the United States. 

indeed, we have only to consider what 
has been the result of these 20 years of 
concern: during the Arab-Israel conflict 
wl rich followed the partition of the 
Palestine Mandate in 1948, an estimated 
-751,000 Arabs fled from their homes in 
Palestine and took refuge in Jordan, 
Syria, Leba.non, and a small enclave of 
141 square miles of barrenness known as 
th i Gaza strip. 

Today, after 20 years of dedicated ef- 
fort by the United Nations Relief and 
Works Agency; — UNRWA — and the in- 
vestment of over $400 million by the 
United States alone, the central facts are 
thjse: the original 750,000 Arab refugees 
now number 1.3 million, with over 720,- 
00 5 in Joxdan and almost 400,000 in 

Gaza; in addition, 40,000 new refugee 
children are born each year; over one- 
half the total number of refugees are 
under the age of 20; the refugee birth 
rate is one of the highest, if not the very 
highest, in the world today; one quarter 
of a million Arab children are now 
awaiting a place on the relief rolls. 

These statistics are sobering and 
shocking, but the condition of these peo- 
ple is even more disturbing. The refugees 
themselves remain barely preserved from 
starvation by the United Nations. 
UNRWA, the United Nations relief or- 
ganization, is only able to provide each 
refugee with $14 worth of food per year, 
approximately 4 cents a day. From my 
own observation— both in 1959 and now 
again from a visit from which I returned 
yesterday— these tragic people are 
hungry, miserable, embittered and im- 
poverished, burdened with unwanted and 
uncared for children, numb and gen- 
erally impassive, yet vulnerable to fanati- 
cal hate stimulated by those who hope 
for a triumphal return to a Palestine 
cleansed of Jews. Desperation has bred 
disillusion; misery has spawned hatred; 
and years of idleness and want have 
withered pride in labor. These are the 
ingredients of a vast human tragedy 
which, if understood, would shock the 
conscience of mankind. This, Mr. Presi- 
dent, is a veritable seedbed for political 
violence, hate, and another war. 

The refugee problem does not lie sim- 
ply in the field of economics, even though 
the hard core of refugees is composed 
of unskilled farmers and laborers — in- 
digestible commodities to countries such 
as Jordan, Egypt;, and Syria, already 
saturated with unskilled and unlearned 
peasants. The problem is much deeper 
and in many respects has symbolized the 
basic Arab-Israel dispute. 

Until the events of the past few weeks, 
the Israeli position on the repatriation 
of the refugees was readily definable. Is- 
rael’s answer was the insistence that the 
refugee problem could only be dealt with 
as part of a peace treaty between the 
Arabs and Israel. This is now, in my 
view, neither appropriate nor enough, 

As we are all aware, for the Arabs to 
subscribe publicly to a formal agreement 
with Israel has been impossible. 

I am convinced by my experience and 
talks on this trip that the Arabs are as of 
now emotionally and politically incapa- 
ble of a formalized peace agreement 
with Israel. Moreover, Israel has been re- 
luctant to alter the demographic pattern 
of the country or to introduce a potential 
security threat by absorbing even a mod- 
est number of the refugees. For instance, 
in 1949 Israel first offered and then 
withdrew an offer to repatriate 100,000 
refugees because it came to be regarded 
as a threat to permanence of the Jewish 
homeland, so long sought by a suffering 
and persecuted people. 

To many Arab political leaders, the 
perpetuation of the misery of the refu- 
gees was a powerful propaganda pawn 
in a game directed at the extermination 
of Israel. To the more moderate leaders, 
the option of repatriatiori and return or 
compensation for property was an im- 
portant article of faith. Perhaps more 
important, the rights and the plight of 
the refugees symbolized a surging quest 

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throughout the Arab world for not only 
justice for the refugees but for dignity 
and respect for the Arab. 

Both positions were appealing— strong 
moral arguments were mustered for 
botfi. But whatever chance existed for 
sensible discussion and possible resolu- 
tion of the refugee problem was de- 
stroyed by strident voices of hate and 
fear. Given this impasse, it is no wonder 
that peace in the Middle East has been 
shattered every 10 years by brutal and 
senseless wars. 

And now there is a new and still larger 
refugee problem. As a result of Israel s 
stunning military victories, the nature of 
the Palestine refugee problem has been 
profoundly altered. In the aftermath of 
this war, Israel has suddenly found it- 
self, virtually overnight, in the position 
of having “repatriated,” so to speak, 
more than a half a million refugees. For 
a country that once withdrew an offer 
to repatriate 100,000 refugees the sud- 
den responsibility of acquiring five times 
that many must come as a shock. Its 
effect, however handled, will be pro- 
found. Many may consider the presence 
of over a half million refugees within 
the area occupied by Israel as a danger 
to Israel. In one sense, this is probably 
true. But in my view, these unfortunate 
victims of conflict are both a responsi- 
bility and an opportunity for Israel. If 
Israel meets this challenge in a mag- 
nanimous way, as I believe she can, then 
gates to the Middle East, previously 
closed to her, may become open. And 
Israel’s future is in the Middle East, 
with which she is now face to face as 
never before. 

Mr. President, because the recent war 
has created such an entirely new situa- 
tion for the Arab refugees and because 
it appears such a key to possible equa- 
tions of peaceful coexistence in this trou- 
bled part of the world, I revisited the 
Middle East to see and learn and report. 
Once before, in 1959, I inquired into the 
administration of the refugee problem. 
After a careful look at the UNRWA prob- 
lem, I then reported to the Senate that 
there were serious problems in the 
UNRWA program in Jordan because of 
the fraudulent and corrupt use of ra- 
tion cards. This situation was particu- 
larly appalling because many refugees, 
primarily children who needed and de- 
served assistance, were denied help be- 
cause of flagrant profiteering on the part 
of puny relief racketeering. Despite as- 
surances from both Jordanian and 
American officials that an effective re- 
form would take place, little rectification 
of the relief rolls has been accomplished. 

I mention this problem of rectifica- 
tion of the refugee relief rolls because 
the same problem is still before us, and 
now that there are so many new or dis- 
placed refugees it is imperative that the 
available supplies be given only to those 
whose needs and eligibility have been 
properly certified. 

I visited Beirut, Lebanon, where I spoke 
at length with Lawrence Michelmore, the 
Commissioner-General of the United 
Nations Relief and Works Agency, and 
with prominent and official Lebanese. 
After leaving Beirut, I was fortunate 
enough to be the first Member of Con- 

gress to enter Jordan after the war. 
While in Jordan, I spoke with the Prime 
Minister and other high officials and 
visited several of the temporary camps 
where an estimated 180,000 to 200,000 
new refugees are kept in camps that defy 
description in misery and human deg- 
radation. Men, women and children are 
huddled on the hot and burning sand 
with but few meager possessions or 
clothing, many being without even a 
small tent or cooking utensils. There are 
no sanitation facilities and little water. 

In Israel, I spoke with Israel leaders 
such as Abba Eban, the Foreign Minis- 
ter and Ted Kollek, the mayor of Jeru- 
salem, and others. I also visited the now 
virtually empty Jericho refugee camp 
on the west bank of the J ordan and later 
inspected the vast refugee area in Ga^a, 
a vast concentration camp on the sand, 
if you will. 

I returned from my conversations with 
Arab and Israeli leaders and from my 
visits to refugee camps with one domi- 
nant impression, it was that a willing- 
ness on the part of Israel to deal with the 
refugee problem in a magnanimous and 
humane way could be a small — but enor- 
mously critical — step toward peace in 
the Middle East. I believe that this is 
true regardless of the political future of 
the newly occupied areas. Indeed, I am 
convinced that the refugee problem and 
a political settlement in the Middle East 
are so tightly entwined that a political 
settlement is impossible without progress 
on the refugee problem. 

I think this connection between the 
refugee problem and a political settle- 
ment is realized in Tel Aviv, however 
dimly at this moment, and perhaps also 
in the Arab countries. Let there be no 
mistake, Israel has taken on an enormous 
responsibilty in assuming over 500,000 
refugees — that is a number which repre- 
sents roughly 20 percent of Israel’s en- 
tire population. In the United States, a 
comparable action would be for the 
U.S. Government to suddenly acquire 
40,000,000 basically untrained, unlettered, 
and fearful new citizens. Thus, for better 
or worse, Israel will never quite be the 
same if it assumes responsibility for these 

Over the next few months, Israel faces 
a number of important decisions that 
could affect the whole future of the Mid- 
dle East. I refer to the immediate prob- 
lem of handling the some 180,000 refu- 
gees from the west bank of Jordan who 
fled into east Jordan during fighting, and 
to the other thousands in the valley and 
in Gaza who did not flee. The whole 
world is now watching how Israel will 
handle this first test of its declared pol- 
icy to approach the refugee problem in 
a humane and magnanimous fashion. 
Thus far, despite Israel’s assurances that 
it would allow refugees to return to their 
homes over the Jordan River between 
July 10 and August 10, both the planning 
and execution of this commitment have 
been unfortunately inadequate. After 
talking to Arab and Israel officials last 
week, I came to the conclusion that plan- 
ning was insufficient and that something 
needed to be done if the refugees were to 
return in an expeditious fashion. On the 
basis of my own observations, I there- 

fore urged Jordanian and Israel offi- 
cials to facilitate the return of these ref- 
ugees to their former camps on the west 
bank. UNRWA officials have also urged 
such a return. Also, on July 8, I sent a 
cable to President Johnson and to the 
Secretary of State Dean Dusk, which I 
will read to the Senate at this time. 

Mr. President, have made Inquiry Into new 
refugee problem cause by Mid-East War. Vis- 
ited Beirut to confer with Commissioner- 
General of UNRWA, Jordan and Israel. In 
Jordan I spoke with Prime Minister and 
visited temporary camps where some esti- 
mated 180,000 new or displaced refugees from 
Jordan West Bank are In condition of hu- 
man suffering that defies description. 

Upon my own I have urged Jordanian offi- 
cials to Insist that these refugees return to 
their former camps on the West Bank. Jor- 
danian officials agree. UNRWA officials have 
urged such return. Israel has announced per- 
mission for their return beginning July 10. 
Unfortunately conditions for return not yet 
adequately clarified. Israel high officials In- 
form that conditions have been detailed to 
Red Cross but Just two days before • stated 
time Jordanian Government has, to my 
knowledge, not been informed through any 
authorized channel of the conditions of such 

Today I have visited the Jericho refugee 
complex in the West Jordan area. Camps are 
virtually empty, with only 3,000 to 4,000 of 
original 75,000 refugees remaining. Camps 
are In condition, far far superior to present 
plight. Sanitation facilities Intact. Humane 
considerations require return to these and 
other camps. _ . , 

In my unofficial talks with Israeli officials 
I have stressed and will continue to stress . 

(1) Whole world will be watching anx- 
iously for good faith performance pledge to 
allow innocent refugees to return In an or- 
derly, humane manner. 

(2) Assurances appear necessary that ref- 
ugees will be permitted to receive remit- 
tances or other funds sent by relatives work- 
ing in other Arab countries and that said 
relatives, with proper identification and con- 
trol, will be able to visit families. 

I have communicated these personal con- 
victions to both Israeli and Jordanian offl- 

clals. , , . _ 

Please be assured I have emphasized I 
speak only as an individual Senator with a 
deep interest in this human problem. Am- 
bassador Barbour has also emphasized the 
Importance of the foregoing points in num- 
erous conversations and has extended to me 
the most hospitable cooperation. 

Perhaps compassionate treatment of these 
victims of conflict could smooth the path to 
conditions of peaceful co-exlstence In this 
distraught area. 

Reports since then have unfortunately 
indicated that my misgivings about the 
state of planning for the return of the 
refugees were justified. On Monday, July 
10, the first day of the return period, the 
Associated Press reported that hundreds 
of refugees came to the AllCnby Bridge in 
hopes of returning to the west bank of 
the Jordan. According to this report, they 
were turned away. They were turned 
away, as I understand it, not because of 
Israel’s intention to keep them out, but 
because arrangements through the Inter- 
national Red Cross and by the two coun- 
tries concerned had not been completed. 
I regret this delay and the very obvious 
human suffering it has caused. At the 
same time, I have every confidence, on 
the basis of my discussions with Israel 
leaders, that the situation will be rem- 
edied and that most of the refugees who 
wish to return will be permitted so to do. 

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Approved For 

Mr. President, I cannot over emphasize 
the importance of what happens over the 
next few weeks and months in Israel’s 
dealings with the Aral? refugees. If Is- 
rael should live up to its promise to re- 
patriate the Arab refugees by investing 
in the economics, in the agriculture and 
the industry of the refugee areas, and in 
the rehabilitation of the people into pro- 
ductive enterprise, the cause of peace in 
the Middle East will be greatly advanced 
or so it seems to me. I believe the world 
is of one mind with regard to humane 
treatment of the refugees. This con- 
sensus for compassion just might be the 
easiest, if not the only path, to de facto, 
though undeclared, formulas for peace- 
ful relations in the Middle East. If Israel 
should be able, not only to care for these 
innocent victims of the conflict in the 
Middle East, but actually to improve their 
lot, then I think that there is real hope 
of a gradual development of working 
agreements between some of the Arab 
states and Israel. Perhaps a permanent 
structure for peace in the Middle East 
will not come until there has been a series 
of de facto working agreements between 
Arab and Jew. In any event, I think an 
overall political settlement is impossible 
until these smaller steps have been taken. 

I urge that all parties concerned look 
at the refugee problem in these terms 
Por my own part, I will support an in- 
crease in the U.S. contribution to 
UNBWA relief activities if Israel and 
the Arab countries show good will in the 
treatment of the refugees: 

As I said, the next few; months will be 
critical to the future of the Middle East, 

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Mr. BARTLETT . Mr. President, the 
mineral and biological resources of the 
sea are exceedingly great and the use 
made of them by the nations of the 
world, while important, does not ap- 
proach full use. Use of the full potential 
of the sea for the benefit of mankind is a 
goal which will be attained, if at all 
many years in the future. Before that 
happy day arrives, there are many ques- 
“hhs that must be answered. Some are 
biological, some are explorator in the 
sense that inventories must be made as 
first step, and some are legal. 

The harvest of oceanic resources with- 
in the territorial limits of any country 
that borders the sea will be controlled by 
that country. I think it is safe to assume 
that the long-term welfare of such a 
country will assure proper management 
of its coastal resources. Proper manage- 
ment of the resources of the high seas, 
however, is something else. It has been 
truly said that everybody’s responsibility 
is nobody’s responsibility. Nowhere is 
this more obvious — and more pregnant 
with danger for the resources — than in 
the area of management of the resources 
of the high seas. 

At a meeting of the FAD Committee 
on Fisheries held early this year in 
Rome, Italy, Dr. Wilbert M. Chapman 
presented a paper entitled “The State of 
Ocean Use Management.” In it he dis- 
cussed at some length some of the prob- 
lems of management of the high seas 
resources. Dr. Chapman’s paper was in- 
teresting to me, and it was most illumi- 

n iting in that it brought into focus some 
01 the problems we will face in the fu- 

I believe that this paper should be 
read by everyone who shares my con- 
cern for our country’s future use of the 
wean's resources. Therefore. I ask unan- 
jiiious consent that it be printed in the 

There being no objection, the paper 
ordered to be printed in the Record, 
as follows: 

The Stat:s of Ocean Use Management 
(By Dr. Wilbert McLeod Chapman, for pre- 

mentation to the second session of the FAO 
on Fisheri es> Home, April 24, 



lh. Chairman, Distinguished Delegates, 
Da- lies and Gentlemen. it is a great honor 
to be asked to address this assembly. Prom 
what I say later on you will see the impor- 
tance Which I attach to the deliberations of 
thf Committee on Fisheries. 

J have had the pleasure of meeting on 
int amationaf fishery affairs with nearly all 
of you on other occasions over the past 
thiffy-odd years either in these halls, or at 
other meetings elsewhere in the world. Often 
thti has been as a member of a delegation 
of she United States, and sometimes as an 
individual acting tn the role of an lnde- 
perdent expert. It is necessary to state quite 
flatly at the beginning of this address that 
I an here today as a very independent ex- 

' ■ * have no idea that what- 1 have to say 
wil be in agreement with policies of the 
United States Government or that of any 
oth;r entity with which I am associated 
pro: lessionally. 

M r. Jackson has asked me to speak today 
on Ihe state of ocean use management In the 
word, the possible Impact on this of the 
several forces clustering around the United 
Nat ons resol ution of 8 December, 1966 on 
"Re sources of the Sea," the moving events 
and the forces at work on these matters In- 
ternally in the United States, and elsewhere 
in tie world, and related matters. 

Tills is, to coin a phrase, a wriggling mass 
of V iry lively worms, and upon closer inspec- 
tion each worm is found to have a head on 
botl ends full of sharp teeth ready to snap 
off prodding fingers. It is therefore with some 
trep .dation that I began my prodding, and 
take care to absolve the United States Gov- 
ernn lent or anyone else, from blame for what 
I will say. After careful examination and long 
stud? I do not know what United States 
polic y, if any, Ls on very many of these things 
anyway. b 


July 12, 1967 

It is useful at first to enumerate some of 
the several forces at work In this field of 
international relations, particularly in the 
Unit id States, so far as they can be separated 
from each other and dealt with indepen- 
dently. Among these are: 

1, The nuclear powered submarine 

Th 1 chief thing about the nuclear powered 
mibn: arine is that once it goes below the sur- 
face if the ocean and is lost track of there 
is no existing technology by which it can be 
fount [ again until it wants to be found. 
Loade d with its armament of nuclear tipped 
Inter eontin ental Ballistic Missiles it is capa- 
ble oi doing great damage even to the inner- 
most reaches of the largest land masses. 

I w .11 say no more on this sensitive subject 
save 1o say that the problem navies have in 
deteciing and catching submarines is not 
conceptually dissimilar from that which fish- 
ermen have in detecting and catching fish. 
Both wish to lower their cost per ton of 
catching, and both require about the same 
sort <f Information and understanding of 
the 0( ean environment with which to do so. 

The navies have greater funds and research 
capabilities at their service than do the fish- 
ery people, or anyone else dealing with the 
ocean, and a major factor in the present stir 
over the use of the ocean derives from spin- 
offs of new knowledge of the ocean derived 
from this source of research support which 
are now reaching the civilian economy. 

2. The weather 

A wag said a generation or two ago, that 
everybody talks about the weather, but no- 
body does anything about it. This is no 
longer the case. The state of the weather 
has become so important in the total opera- 
tion of our present complex societies that it 
requires to be capable of prediction beyond 
the current theoretical limits, and modified 
beneficially when and where possible. It is 
now apparent that the atmosphere in which 
the weather occurs f orms with the ocean one 
integrated heat engine in which most of 
the energy although ultimately deriving from 
the sun, comes Into the atmosphere as ef- 
fective force indirectly from the ocean. 

Having understood this fact it then be- 
comes necessary to learn how the ocean 
reservoired energy enters the atmosphere 
and affects its movements before the weather 
can be predicted with much better preci- 
fon, or anything much tan be done about 
it. But it is Just exactly that 71% of the 
earth s surface covered by salt water where 
there are the least weather stations and ob- 
servation points. The enormous expanses of 
the South Pacific are the largest reservoir 
of solar energy on this planet. The effects 
of Its energy fluxes on planetary weather are 
bound to be considerable, but we know the 
least about this piece of water that we do of 
any ocean, and very little, indeed, about the 
energy fluxes within its complex structure, 
or between it and the atmosphere. Nor do 
we have observation stations in it yet to find 

The same is largely true of the South 
Atlantic, the southern Indian Ocean, and the 
boundaryless seas of Antarctica. The south- 
ern hemisphere is the water hemisphere 
where the most of the energy to drive the 
atmosphere Is received and reservoired but 
the observation pointe to keep track of the 
energy fluxes that drive the air and make the 
weather are mostly on land in the land 
hemisphere of the North. So are the meteor- 

It is obvious that the meteorologists must 
get to sea, they must go south, and they 
must establish observation points In the 
ocean. This is a matter of such moment that 
our government has been restructured, by a 
combination of sea and air activities within 
the Department of Commerce into the En- 
vironmental Science Services Administra- 
ln ° r der to deal with this problem more 
effectively. This Is not the end yet of re- 
structuring the United States Government 
to achieve this objective, and similar activi- 
ties are being undertaken in other govern- 
™ 3 ls hav,K 8 an impact on the 
World Meteorological Organization, and 
through this on the problems with which 
we are dealing today. 

In essence it ls no longer possible for 
oceanographers and meteorologists to keep 
or be kept, separately in their respective 
ivory towers. It turns out that they are 
studying different aspects of the same thing 
the ocean-atmosphere heat engine, and 
neither can understand its part until thev 
work together. It also turns out that their 
customers who pay the bills want them both 
to come down out of their Ivory towers and 
begin producing useful results 
*• “ ™ d "‘ lu ‘ng of the last comment, 
the United States Navy has felt that its need 
for advanced atmospheric and oceanic 
weather predictive capabilities was so urgent 
that it could not await these adjustments in 
. sector. Accordingly, It has es- 

tablished its own analytical; and predictive 
service respecting ocean air and weather on 
a world wide basis. Prom this the fisheries 

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